Hydrodynamics of charged Dirac electrons

We study the hydrodynamic properties of ultraclean interacting two-dimensional Dirac electrons with Keldysh quantum field theory. We study it from a weak-coupling and a strong-coupling perspective. We demonstrate that long-range Coulomb interactions play two independent roles: (i) they provide the inelastic and momentum-conserving scattering mechanism that leads to fast local equilibration; (ii) they facilitate the emergence of collective excitations, for instance plasmons, that contribute to transport properties on equal footing with electrons. Our approach is based on an effective field theory of the collective field coupled to electrons. Within a conserving approximation for the coupled system we derive a set of coupled quantum-kinetic equations. This builds the foundation of the derivation of the Boltzmann equations for the interacting system of electrons and plasmons. From this, we explicitly derive all the conservation laws and identify the extra contributions of energy density and pressure from the plasmons. We demonstrate that plasmons show up in thermo-electric transport properties as well as in quantities that enter the energy-momentum tensor, such as the viscosity.